A student goes to school and learns to change classes when the bell rings. Of what kind of learning is t?
The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (e.g., Thorndike, Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus.
Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforcers -- any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from adversive stimuli -- punishment -- which result in reduced responses). A great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement (e.g. interval versus ratio) and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior.
One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. For example, Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules. Skinner (1957) tried to account for verbal learning and language within the operant conditioning paradigm, although this effort was strongly rejected by linguists and psycholinguists. Skinner (1971) deals with the issue of free will and social control.
So basically we are conditioned to respond...if yourel ate you get deteniton or a demerit or a not so nice look..so we know when the bell rings to high tail it to another class..hope this helps.
Promptness. In business as well as many other fields it is essential to be prompt. Nothing leaves a bad impression like being late. The bell system is to help students with this.
In very private schools, bells aren't used. Students are expected to be on time, regardless, but then again, these are students aiming at very high-paying careers.
Where are you aimed at?
Check the last word on your post. Impressions are also made in other ways.
I taught for so many years without a bell that when we moved into a new building and someone set off the bell we were all shocked and trying to figure out what kind of warning was going on! I suppose you are looking for an answer such as a Pavlovian response to a stimulus or some such thing?
It's called conditioning... just think about Pavlov's dog.
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